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Roula 1995

"Lick It" is a song recorded by American dance music group 20 Fingers featuring singer Roula, released in February 1995 as the second single from their debut album, On the Attack and More (1994). It also appears on 20 Fingers' self-titled second studio album and peaked at number-one in Italy. The song contains explicit lyrics that refer to cunnilingus. A black-and-white music video was also made.

Roula 1995

In 1995, the mashup "Don't Laugh But Lick It" has been released as 20 Fingers & Winx feat. Roula, compromising "Lick It" with "Don't Laugh" by DJ Winx. In the Sensation White party in Amsterdam 2009, there has been released a special remix of "Lick It" with the original vocals of Roula, with go-go dancers background. In 2009, DJ Felli Fel heavily samples "Lick It" in his song "Feel It" featuring T-Pain, Sean Paul, Flo Rida and Pitbull.

On February 21, 1995, supporters of the National Front, while posting campaign signs, killed in unclear circumstances a 17-year old son of an African immigrant in Marseilles. National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen deplored but did not condemn the killing, possibly hurting his chances in France's presidential balloting this spring. The first election is April 23, and the run-off May 7. According to La Pen, his supporters are instructed not to put up signs at night, and not to carry arms. Interior Minister Charles Pasqua warned that the world faced a campaign of destabilization by Muslim. Pasqua called on "democrats" in Algeria to hold firm. French officials fear that the fall of the Algerian government might produce a mass exodus to France. The populations of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia are young--more than half their population are below the age of 25--and have high unemployment rates-- 50 percent in Algeria. Income gaps between Europe and North Africa are widening. In 1992, per capita GDP in France was $22,260, versus $1840 in Algeria, $1030 in Morocco, and $$1720 in Tunisia. The populations of the Maghreb are projected to grow from 60 million in 1992, about the same as France's 57 million, to 83 to 86 million in 2010. French officials report that the number of people deported from France in 1994 rose 53 percent to 11,400; another 566 were expelled, at a total cost to the French taxpayer $18 million. According to the head of French immigration, illegal immigrants, once mainly from the France's former colonies in Africa, in 1994 included nationals of Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Romania, and even China and Sri Lanka. Increased illegal immigration is blamed on smugglers, especially Asians, who supply illegal labor for leather and construction industries. Craig Whitney, "Killing of Immigrant Likely to Hurt Far Right at French Polls," New York Times, February 28, 1995, A3; Roula Khalaf, "Politics Mask North Africa's Success in Population Control," The Financial Post, February 21, 1995. "Deportations up 53 percent in France," Agence France Presse, February 8, 1995. Kathryn Hone, "In France any Muslim is called fundamentalist," Irish Times, February 7, 1995. Patrick Bishop, "France pays price for past Muslim fundamentalism ," Sunday Telegraph, February 5, 1995.

EconPapers FAQ Archive maintainers FAQ Cookies at EconPapers Format for printing The RePEc blog The RePEc plagiarism page Ageing poorly?: accounting for the decline in earnings inequality in Brazil, 1995-2012Francisco Ferreira (Obfuscate( '', 'f.d.ferreira' )), Sergio Firpo and Julian Messina (Obfuscate( '', 'julian.messina' ))No 8018, Policy Research Working Paper Series from The World BankAbstract:The Gini coefficient of labor earnings in Brazil fell by nearly a fifth between 1995 and 2012, from 0.50 to 0.41. The decline in earnings inequality was even larger by other measures, with the 90-10 percentile ratio falling by almost 40 percent. Although the conventional explanation of a falling education premium did play a role, an RIF regression-based decomposition analysis suggests that the decline in returns to potential experience was the main factor behind lower wage disparities during the period. Substantial reductions in the gender, race, informality and urban-rural wage gaps, conditional on human capital and institutional variables, also contributed to the decline. Although rising minimum wages were equalizing during 2003-2012, they had the opposite effects during 1995-2003, because of declining compliance. Over the entire period, the direct effect of minimum wages on inequality was muted.Date: 2017-03-30References: Add references at CitEc Citations: View citations in EconPapers (4) Track citations by RSS feedDownloads: (external link) (application/pdf)Related works:Working Paper: Ageing Poorly?: Accounting for the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil, 1995-2012 (2018) Working Paper: Ageing Poorly? Accounting for the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil, 1995-2012 (2017) This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/TextPersistent link: :wbk:wbrwps:8018Access Statistics for this paperMore papers in Policy Research Working Paper Series from The World Bank 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433. Contact information at EDIRC.Bibliographic data for series maintained by Roula I. Yazigi (Obfuscate( '', 'ryazigi' )). var addthis_config = "data_track_clickback":true; var addthis_share = url:" :wbk:wbrwps:8018"Share This site is part of RePEc and all the data displayed here is part of the RePEc data set. Is your work missing from RePEc? Here is how to contribute. Questions or problems? Check the EconPapers FAQ or send mail to Obfuscate( '', 'econpapers' ). EconPapers is hosted by the Örebro University School of Business.

Given this outcome data for children with PDDs, cliniciansfrequently face the dilemma of a PDD child with anxiety/ compulsive symptomswho has failed a trial of an SSRI. This maybe due to lack of effectiveness,intolerable side effects, or both. Because treatment options for PDD youthsare limited, a second trial of an SSRI may be initiated. The practice ofgiving a second SSRI trial after an initial treatment failure has beenadvocated in the treatment of adults with major depression (Nierenberg et al.2007) as there are multiple studies supporting the potential usefulness of asecond trial in this population (Brown and Harrison1995; Joffe et al. 1996;Thase et al. 1997; Rush et al. 2006). In the child and adolescentpsychopharmacology literature, the Treatment of Resistant Depression inAdolescents Study (TORDIA) was the only study that we could identifyinvestigating the outcome of a second SSRI (Brent et al. 2008). Thisrandomized, controlled trial looked at response to a second SSRI vs.venlafaxine (with and without cognitive behavioral therapy CBT) intreatment resistant depressed adolescents. The response rate for medicationalone was modest at 40.5%. The authors found the results encouraging fortheir chronically ill pool, especially considering an additive effect notedfor CBT.

In comparing our results to other studies of repeat SSRI trials,our response rate was modestly lower than that observed for a second SSRItrial in the TORDIA study (31.8% vs. 40.5%) (Brent et al. 2008). It was alsolower than that reported in the adult depression literature. Most of theseopen prospective studies in adults report response rates for a second SSRItreatment of greater than 50% (Brown and Harrison 1995; Joffe et al. 1996;Thase et al. 1997; Thase et al. 2001; Thase et al. 2002; Calabrese et al.2003), though with one randomized trial noting a much lower response rate of26.7% (Rush et al. 2006). Both the adolescent and adult data include subjectswho failed the initial treatment secondary to inadequate response and tointolerance from side effects.

The high rate of activation side effects is of interest. 90% ofthe subjects exhibited behavioral activation in at least one of the trials.This is much higher than that observed in the TORDIA study and in the adultdepression investigations (Brown and Harrison1995; Thase et al. 2002;Calabrese et al. 2003). Flu-like symptoms and body aches were more common inthe TORDIA study. Sexual dysfunction and somnolence were frequent in adultstudies (Thase et al. 2002; Calabrese et al. 2003). In trying to explain thiscontrast, there has been speculation about the potential comorbidity of PDDsand bipolar disorder (Wozniak et al. 1997) including reports of manicconversion in PDD children receiving SSRIs (Damore et al. 1998; DeLong et al.2002). Although behavioral activation limited to SSRI exposure would not beconsidered true mania or hypomania, these side effects may indicate asensitivity of PDD children to affective lability with SSRI treatment. ThosePDD youths who have failed an SSRI trial maybe more sensitive to behavioralactivation and less likely to respond to this form of intervention. However,there is a caveat with these children. Because of the limited verbal statusof many PDD youths, symptoms such as agitation may reflect a behavioralresponse to an uncomfortable somatic symptom, a headache for example.Regardless, future investigations of the overlap between PDDs andmania/hypomania vulnerability seem warranted.

The findings of this study should be interpreted in the context ofthe study design. First, the study was nonrandomized and retrospective makingit subject to selection and recording bias. However, as a descriptive study,the investigation should reflect common presentations and outcomes of PDDchildren treated with successive SSRIs. The diagnoses were not determinedusing a more thorough assessment such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview,Revised, thus possibly limiting the reliability of the stated diagnoses. AllSSRI's were lumped together with both the initial SSRI trial and thesecond trial. This assumes some degree of equivalence among the SSRIs whichmay not be the case particularly for side effects (Brown and Harrison1995; DeWilde et al. 1993). Combining the SSRIs was done to generate a sufficientnumber of trials to investigate. The use of the CGII as a measure of globalimprovement misses the details of response for the patients. In addition,because response was measured in sum over the entire treatment period,changes in level of improvement during treatment were not captured.Information regarding the cognitive status of the subjects was not gatheredseparately as part of the chart screen. Such data may have helped in furtherdetailing the study pool and allowed for testing of possible associativecognitive variables. The use of concurrent medication made it difficult tocircumscribe the specific effects of the SSRIs. Finally, as already noted,the low number of subjects made association findings difficult due topotential type II error. 350c69d7ab


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